[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 13 - Covid 19 Supplement 2 ::
Caspian J Intern Med 2022, 13 - Covid 19 Supplement 2: 155-160 Back to browse issues page
Menstruation: a possible independent health promoter, aging, and COVID-19
Alireza Bolourian , Jay Shen, Marjan Gharagozloo, Zahra Mojtahedi *
Autophgy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran , mojtahed@unlv.nevada.edu
Abstract:   (1707 Views)
Women live longer than men. Cardiovascular disorders, cancers, serious infectious conditions are less common among women than men. Recent data also indicate that women, particularly before menopause, are less susceptible to severe COVID-19, a viral infection hitting less-healthy individuals. The superiority of women regarding health has not been completely understood and partly been explained by estradiol beneficial effects on the microenvironment of the body, notably cytokine network. Estradiol cycles are aligned with menstruation cycles, a challenge for distinguishing their individual effects on human health. Large-scale, long-term studies indicate that hysterectomy, particularly at younger ages, is associated with an increased risk of mortality, cancer, or heart disorders. The underlying mechanisms for the increased risk in hysterectomized women are hard to be investigated in animal models since only a few primates menstruate. However, blood exchange models could resemble menstruation and provide some insight into possible beneficial effects of menstruation. Sera from animal models (neutral blood exchange) and also humans that have undergone therapeutic plasma exchange enhance the proliferation of progenitor cells in the culture and contain lower levels of proinflammatory factors. If menstruation resembles a blood exchange model, it can contribute to a healthier cytokine network in women. Consequently, menstruation, independently from estradiol health beneficial effects, can contribute to greater longevity and protection against certain disorders, e.g., COVID-19, in women. Investigation of COVID-19 rate/severity in hysterectomized women will provide insight into the possible beneficial effects of menstruation in COVID-19.
Keywords: Aging, Blood exchange, Gender, Menstruation, Women, Therapeutic plasma exchange
Full-Text [PDF 126 kb]   (375 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: Obstetrics & Gynicology
Received: 2021/03/22 | Accepted: 2021/08/22 | Published: 2022/04/6
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML     Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Bolourian A, Shen J, Gharagozloo M, Mojtahedi Z. Menstruation: a possible independent health promoter, aging, and COVID-19. Caspian J Intern Med 2022; 13 :155-160
URL: http://caspjim.com/article-1-2814-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 13 - Covid 19 Supplement 2 Back to browse issues page
Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4570